It is composed of the Court of Justice, the General Court, and specialized courts. Court of Justice. The Court of Justice , consisting of twenty-eight judges and eleven advocates-general, interprets and adjudicates disputes over EU law, a separate body of law distinct from and supreme over the law of the Member States.
The Treaty of Lisbon introduced a new panel of seven persons whose task is to assess each candidate for the Court of Justice, the General Court, and Advocates-General before the Member States are allowed to appoint them. Under the terms of the Treaty of Nice, each Member State will have a national serve on the court. The eleven advocates-general are appointed by common accord and serve six-year terms. Consisting of twenty-eight judges, this intermediate court also decides disputes regarding EU law. This court was created in to alleviate delays in deciding cases by the Court of Justice because of its increased caseload.
The Treaty of Nice expanded the jurisdiction of the Court of First Instance and provided that the Court shall have at least one judge from each Member State. T he Treaty of Nice introduced the concept of specialized tribunals for specific areas within the court system.
The ABC of European Union law by Klaus-Dieter Borchardt
Under the Lisbon treaty, the European Parliament and the Council have power to create the specialized courts by the ordinary legislative procedure. The Civil Service Tribunal is one such specialized court. It is comprised of seven judges. While there are numerous books on European Union law, the following is a very selective list of the better introductions to the topic.
European Union Law in a Nutshell. Paul, Minn. This concise treatment, which is part of the West Nutshell series, provides an overview of EU law and institutions. The Foundations of European Community Law.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, This book is a good introduction to the law of the European Union. Chapter 1 describes the legal basis for and the function of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, and the European Parliament. A Guide to European Union Law. A good introduction to EU institutions and EU law.
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Chicago: CCH Editions. Formerly known as the Common Market Law Reporter, this multi-volume loose-leaf service provides commentary on EU law by topic and includes the texts of treaties and digests of relevant EU laws. It is updated on a monthly basis. A brief, readable summary of EU institutions and the sources of European Union law that incorporates changes resulting from the Treaty of Lisbon. Also available on Europa. The EU is noted for its heavy use of jargon, sometimes called Eurospeak.
The following books will help in deciphering unfamiliar terms. Eurojargon: A Dictionary of the European Union. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, This book provides an exhaustive list of acronyms used by EU agencies and officials. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, This source offers a selective list of terms and concepts related to the EU.
Download a free version of the glossary from the EU Bookshop. This database provides contact information for senior personnel of the European Union.
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Searchable by name, entity, or hierarchical structure. Access it online or download an e-book version for free from the website. The European Union has developed over the past five decades from the six-member European Coal and Steel Community to the current twenty-eight-member supranational organization through the adoption and ratification of treaties. The texts of the treaties are published in the Official Journal of the European Union , the official gazette of the EU. Other treaty series and commercial publications described below are also sources for the text of the EU treaties.
Following is a list of the founding treaties that provide the legal basis for the EU:. This treaty expired by its own terms on July 23, C 80 1 Treaty of Nice. C 1 Lisbon Treaty. A consolidated version of the treaty incorporating the changes through the Treaty of Lisbon is available in the Official Journal of the European Union :. C 83 The Treaty of Amsterdam renumbered the articles of the founding treaties.
Citations to specific articles of the founding treaties prior to the ratification of the Treaty of Amsterdam in will be to the old numbering scheme of the treaty articles. For example, the article on the creation of the internal market is cited as Article 14 example Art.
The ex-number refers to the numerical sequence of the treaty articles prior to the Treaty of Amsterdam. A table of equivalences showing the correspondence between the old and new numbering scheme was published in the Official Journal on October 11, The EU has grown since its founding by admitting additional nations.
New members of the EU must sign and ratify an accession treaty in order to join the EU. The six accession treaties thus far and their citations are listed below:. L 73 5 First Accession Treaty. L 9 Second Accession Treaty.https://kessai-payment.com/hukusyuu/espionner-whatsapp/xit-golocalisation-portable.php
European Union Law: EU law
L 9 Third Accession Treaty. C 9 Fourth Accession Treaty.
L 33, available online. L 11, available online. L 10, available online. Both the founding and accession EU treaties are available in the following electronic databases:. The Office for Official Publications of the European Communities publishes several versions of treaties, which are periodically updated:. Download as an e-book for free from the EU Bookshop. Copies of the treaties are also available in several commercial publications:. The texts of the treaties are contained in the last volume of this four-volume loose-leaf service.
Encyclopedia of European Union Law. It is updated on a quarterly basis. European Union Law Guide. New York: Oxford University Press, —. This loose-leaf service contains the text of the treaties and the text of principal legislation organized by subject. This annually updated loose-leaf service, updated twice a year, analyzes the treaties article by article. It includes tables relating to the renumbering of treaty articles. Also available on LexisAdvance. The European Constitutional Convention met in Brussels beginning in In June , it completed its task of drafting a constitutional treaty that was presented to an intergovernmental conference held in fall The heads of state of the EU signed this treaty on October 29, in Rome.
The signed version of the treaty is available in full-text on Europa. This treaty was never ratified but portions of the text were incorporated into the Treaty of Lisbon. The Treaty of Lisbon.
After the failure to ratify the Convention on the Future of Europe, the Member States signed a revised treaty — the Treaty of Lisbon — that further amended the two founding treaties on December 13, The full-text of the Treaty of Lisbon is available here. It was ratified and entered into force on December 1, Some of the more important changes resulting from the Treaty of Lisbon are creating the office of President of the European Council with a two and a half year renewable term, creating a High Representative of Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, setting the maximum number of members of the European Parliament at seven hundred fifty, changing the qualified majority voting procedure of the Council of the European Union, and introducing a negotiated procedure by which a Member State may leave the European Union.
The intent of all of these changes is to improve the functioning of the European Union. The treaty also makes important changes in the way Europeans can interact with the Union. The European Citizens' Initiative allows for a petition signed by one million citizens of a significant number of Member States to propose to the European Commission legislation on any matter that is within the competency of the European Union.
European Union Law: EU law
National parliaments now can review European legislative acts to evaluate the legislation for breaches of the subsidiarity principle. They can also require review of legislation and delay implementation of proposals. Because of the addition of new articles into the treaties, the Table of Equivalences at the end of the Consolidated Treaty will be particularly helpful to researchers.
The Commission, the Council, and the Parliament are primarily involved in enacting legislation.
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