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Files of this type are not available at this time. Please select ALL from above. Click on a category to view the list of works. The reason for this, as Tovey remarked, is that the purpose of the Prelude is to generate a sense of expectation leading towards the piano entry, and this must come from the music itself, not just from the title on the top of the page. If a complete sonata form were imposed on the Prelude, then it would take on a life of its own, so that when the piano entry occurs, it would be rather incidental to the overall structure.
To express it in another way, in sonata form, the first group of subjects is linked to and generates an expectation of the second group, which would tend to detract attention away from the piano entry — a point that, as Tovey points out, was only grasped by Beethoven rather belatedly. Conversely, in the Mozartian concept, the piano entry is always a moment of great importance, and he varies it considerably from concerto to concerto. The only exception to this rule is the dramatic intervention of the piano in the second bar of the Jeunehomme Concerto, which is, however, minor enough not to disturb the overall structure.
Rather than the Prelude being a "preliminary canter" Hutchings of the themes of the concerto, its role is to introduce and familiarise us with the material that will be used in the ritornello sections, so that we get a sense of return at each of these. Technically, therefore, the ritornello sections should only include themes that are introduced in the Prelude. In practice, however, Mozart allows himself to sometimes vary even this rule.
For example, in Piano Concerto No. The prelude is invariably rich in thematic material, with as many as six or more well-defined themes being introduced. However, the concertos fall into two rather marked groups as to what sort of themes they possess. The most popular concertos, such as Nos.
The Mozartian concept of the piano concerto
However, another group, such as Nos. As Mozart's art progressed, these themes sometimes become less strophic in nature, i. In addition to the ritornello thematic material, Mozart's mature concertos nearly all introduce new thematic material in the piano exposition, the exceptions being K. Hutchings recognises these by labeling ritornello themes A, B, C etc. Mostly these are first introduced by the piano; but sometimes e. Sometimes the exposition starts with one of these new themes in piano concertos Nos.
In addition to the preludial and expositional themes, the exposition typically contains various free sections that show off the piano; but, contrary to the popular conception of the piano concerto, and to how it developed in the nineteenth century, these sections are not merely empty displays, but rather, short sections that fit into the overall scheme.
The middle sections, as in much of Mozart's symphonic output, are typically short and rarely contain the sort of development associated with, in particular, Beethoven. In other words, Mozart normally generates his middle sections by shuffling, condensing and modulating his thematic material, but not by taking a simple theme and genuinely developing it into new possibilities.
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However, as is the case with all generalisations involving his piano concertos, this can be overstated: the middle section of No. In other concertos, such as No. Mozart's themes are cunningly employed, so that they fit together in various ways. Some of the so-called "ritornellic" material of the prelude might indeed never appear again or only appear at the end. This flexibility is of particular importance in the recapitulation, which, though it invariably commences with a restatement of the first preludial theme, is no mere repetition of the preludial themes.
Rather, it condenses and varies them so that the listener is not tired by simple reproduction. The genius of Mozart's mature movements, therefore, is to be able to manipulate a mass of thematic material without compromising the broader scale conception; and the listener, rather than being given the impression of "fiddling" with all the themes, instead is left with the ritornellic impression: Mozart truly uses "art to conceal art".
One further point of great importance is the interaction between piano and orchestra. In the earlier concertos, such as the not totally successful No. His later concertos are truly described as concertos for "piano and orchestra" rather than the more obviously "piano" concertos of the nineteenth century e.
Because Mozart was developing the form of his concertos as he wrote them and not following any preconceived "rules" apart, presumably, from his own judgement of taste , many of the concertos contravene one or other of the generalisations given above. For example, K. Several of the later concertos do not hesitate to introduce new material in the supposedly "ritornellic" sections, such as in K.
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Mozart's second movements are varied, but may be broadly seen as falling into a few main categories. Conversely, the slow movement of the sunny No. Hutchings  gives the following list of movement types slightly modified :. Girdlestone puts the slow movements into five main groups: galant , romance , dream , meditative , and minor.
Mozart's third movements are generally in the form of a rondo , the customary, rather light structure for the period. However, two of his most important finales, that to K. In addition, three more concertos, K. However, the simple refrain-episode-refrain-episode-refrain structure of a rondo does not escape Mozart's revising attentions. The difficulty for Mozart with the typical rondo structure is that it is naturally strophic ; i.
However, such a structure does not lend itself to creating an overall unity in the movement, and Mozart thus attempts various ways with greater or lesser success of overcoming this problem. For example, he may have complex first themes K. In general, Mozart's third movements are as varied as his first movements, and their relation to a "rondo" is sometimes as slender as having a first tune refrain that returns.
Mozart's large output of piano concertos put his influence firmly on the genre. Joseph Haydn had written several keyboard concertos meant for either harpsichord or piano in the earlier galant style, but his last keyboard concerto, No. Beethoven 's first three concertos also show a Mozartian influence to a somewhat lesser extent; this is also true of Carl Maria von Weber , J. Hummel , John Field , and others.
The performance of Mozart's concertos has become a topic of considerable focus in recent years, with various issues such as the size of the orchestra and its instrumentation , the cadenzas , role of the soloist as continuo and improvisation of the written piano part all coming under scrutiny. Mozart's concertos were performed in his lifetime in a variety of settings, and the orchestra available no doubt varied from place to place.
The more intimate works, for example, K. In larger settings, such as halls or the theatre or indeed, outdoors , larger orchestral forces were possible, and indeed a requirement for the more richly scored concertos such as K. In particular, the later concertos have a wind band that is absolutely integral to the music. An extant theatre almanac from , from the Burgtheater in Vienna, suggests that, for the theatre, there were 35 members of the orchestra, e.
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All of Mozart's mature concertos were concertos for the piano and not the harpsichord. His earliest efforts from the mids were presumably for the harpsichord, but Broder  showed in that Mozart himself did not use the harpsichord for any concerto from No. In fact, Mozart's original piano was returned to Vienna in after a year absence and was used in a concert shortly after its return. This is the same piano that Mozart kept at his home and brought through the streets for use at various concerts.
Although early Viennese pianos were in general rather inferior instruments, the fortepianos made by Mozart's friend Stein and Anton Walter , instruments that Mozart much admired, were much more suitable for Mozart's purposes. The fortepianos were of course much quieter instruments than the modern concert grand piano , so that the balance between the orchestra and soloist may not easily be reproduced using modern instruments, especially when small orchestras are used.
The rise in interest in " authentic performance " issues in the last few decades has, however, led to a revival of the fortepiano, and several recordings now exist with an approximate reconstruction of the sound Mozart might have himself expected. It seems likely, although it is not absolutely certain, that the piano would have retained its ancient keyboard basso continuo role in the orchestral tuttis of the concertos, and possibly in other places as well. That this was Mozart's intention is implied by several lines of evidence.
Second, he wrote "CoB" col Basso — with the basses in the lower stave of the piano part during tuttis , implying that the left hand should reproduce the bass part. Sometimes, this bass was figured too, for example in the early edition of Nos. On the other hand, this view is not entirely accepted. Charles Rosen , for example, has the view that the essential feature of the piano concerto is the contrast between the solo, accompanied, and tutti sections; and this psychological drama would have been ruined if the piano was effectively playing the whole time, albeit discreetly. In support of his case, Rosen argued that the published figured bass of No.
Conversely, other scholars, notably Robert Levin have argued that real performance practice by Mozart and his contemporaries would have been considerably more embellished than even the chords suggested by the figuration. A place where the addition of the piano to the orchestra is particularly common is in the last bars after the cadenza , where the orchestra in score plays to the end on its own except in No.go here
Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 5 in D Major, K. 175 and Rondo, K. 382
The history of the Rondo in A major, K. But as K. In Cipriani Potter published in London an arrangement of the entire work for piano alone, presumably with an ending of his own construction. When American musicologist Alfred Einstein came to investigate K. This version has been widely performed, and recorded more than once. Recently the last leaf, missing since before , was discovered by British scholar Alan Tyson in a manuscript miscellany in the British Library. It was long ago suggested that K. The Finale of that work shares with K.
Origin: Vienna, or Scoring: piano solo, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, strings Movements: Allegro. The galant charm of the opening Allegro of K. Something special awaits connoisseurs in the B-flat major Larghetto: not the profundity of the middle movement of the previous concerto but a gossamer creation in which the soloist spins forth a fioritura rapid, lightly played ornamental passages of extraordinary subtlety.
Origin: Vienna, winter Scoring: piano solo, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets and timpani, strings Movements: Allegro. Eighteenth-century writers on music agreed that keys had inherent characters, but often disagreed about precisely what those were.
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A series of C major masterpieces — among them the piano concertos K. The first movement of K.
With the martial instruments temporarily silenced, it is a sort of cantabile aria in an almost pastoral vein. An especially magical moment occurs at the return of the opening idea and key, where Mozart provides a lesson in embellishing a melody with grace and feeling. The return of C major and the trumpets and drums brings with it, not the martial spirits of the first movement, but a sort of gigue en rondeau , whose notable wit is epitomized by some roguish grace notes.
The spirited tripartite refrain is varied each time it recurs. In its final appearance it serves as a coda, which finally evaporates amidst shimmering trills. Origin: Vienna, February 9, Scoring: piano solo, 2 oboes, 2 horns, strings Movements: Allegro vivace.
Related Piano Concerto No. 5 in D Major, K175 (Full Score)
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