Derrida, Africa, and the Middle East


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In some Arabic countries, such as Egypt and Syria, Sephardi Jews arrived via the Ottoman Empire would distinguish themselves from the already established Musta'rabim, while in others, such as Morocco and Algeria, the two communities largely intermarried, with the latter embracing Sephardi customs and thus forming a single community.

Derrida’s “appropriation of Jerusalem”

Most of the many notable philosophical, religious and literary works of the Jews in Spain, North Africa and Asia were written in Arabic using a modified Hebrew alphabet. Aramaic is a Semitic language subfamily. Specific varieties of Aramaic are identified as " Jewish languages " since they are the languages of major Jewish texts such as the Talmud and Zohar , and many ritual recitations such as the Kaddish. Traditionally, Aramaic has been a language of Talmudic debate in yeshivot , as many rabbinic texts are written in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic.

The current Hebrew alphabet , known as "Assyrian lettering" or "the square script", was in fact borrowed from Aramaic. In Kurdistan , the language of the Mizrahim is a variant of Aramaic.

Wise | Derrida, Africa, and the Middle East | |

They are related to the Christian Aramaic dialects spoken by Assyrian people. In , a book was published, authored by Mordechai Zaken , describing the unique relationship between Jews in urban and rural Kurdistan and the tribal society under whose patronage the Jews lived for hundreds of years. Tribal chieftains, or aghas, granted patronage to the Jews who needed protection in the wild tribal region of Kurdistan; the Jews gave their chieftains dues, gifts and services.

The text provides numerous tales and examples about the skills, maneuvers and innovations used by Kurdistani Jews in their daily life to confront their abuse and extortion by greedy chieftains and tribesmen. The text also tells the stories of Kurdish chieftains who saved and protected the Jews unconditionally.

By the early s, virtually the entire Jewish community of Kurdistan — a rugged, mostly mountainous region comprising parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, where Jews had lived since antiquity — relocated to Israel. The vast majority of Kurdish Jews, who were primarily concentrated in northern Iraq, left Kurdistan in the mass aliyah of This ended thousands of years of Jewish history in what had been Assyria and Babylonia. In some Mizrahi Jewish communities notably those of Yemen and Iran , polygyny has been practiced. After the establishment of the State of Israel and subsequent Arab—Israeli War , most Mizrahim were either expelled by their Arab rulers or chose to leave and emigrated to Israel.


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Anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the s and s, in the context of the founding of the State of Israel, led to the departure of large numbers of Mizrahi Jews from the Middle East. They became refugees. Most went to Israel. Many Moroccan and Algerian Jews went to France. Today, as many as 40, Mizrahim still remain in communities scattered throughout the non-Arab Muslim world , primarily in Iran , but also Uzbekistan , Azerbaijan , and Turkey.

About 5, remain in Morocco and fewer than 2, in Tunisia. Other countries with remnants of ancient Jewish communities with official recognition, such as Lebanon , have or fewer Jews. A trickle of emigration continues, mainly to Israel and the United States. Refuge in Israel was not without its tragedies: "In a generation or two, millennia of rooted Oriental civilization, unified even in its diversity", had been wiped out, writes Mizrahi scholar Ella Shohat. Settlement in Moshavim cooperative farming villages was only partially successful, because Mizrahim had historically filled a niche as craftsmen and merchants and most did not traditionally engage in farmwork.

As the majority left their property behind in their home countries as they journeyed to Israel, many suffered a severe decrease in their socio-economic status aggravated by their cultural and political differences with the dominant Ashkenazi community. Furthermore, a policy of austerity was enforced at that time due to economic hardships. Mizrahim from elsewhere brought Georgian, Judaeo-Georgian and various other languages with them. Hebrew had historically been a language only of prayer for most Jews not living in Israel, including the Mizrahim.

Thus, with their arrival in Israel, the Mizrahim retained culture, customs and language distinct from their Ashkenazi counterparts. The cultural differences between Mizrahi and Ashkenazi Jews impacted the degree and rate of assimilation into Israeli society, and sometimes the divide between Eastern European and Middle Eastern Jews was quite sharp.

PHILOSOPHY: Jacques Derrida

Segregation, especially in the area of housing, limited integration possibilities over the years. Although social integration is constantly improving, disparities persist. Israeli-born Ashkenazim are up to twice more likely to study in a university than Israeli-born Mizrahim. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Mizrachi religious Zionism and other entities and people named "Mizrachi", see Mizrachi disambiguation. It has been suggested that this article be merged with Mizrahi Jews in Israel.

Discuss Proposed since February Further information: Judeo-Arabic languages.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Times of Israel. November 28, Retrieved Aug 16, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. September 19, The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 September The Jewish Agency noted that some fifty Jews remain in Yemen The New York Times. Prince, Cathryn 12 November Jewish Virtual Library.

October Arutz Sheva. Retrieved Retrieved 8 March There were earlier plans to bring specific groups, such as the Yemenites, but the "one million plan" was, as Shenhav says, "the zero point," the moment when the category of mizrahi jews in the current sense of this term, as an ethnic group distinct from European-born jews, was invented.

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The Ethics of Community

Demenageries Thinking of Animals after Derrida. This radical otherness has served as the rationale for the domination, exploitation and slaughter of animals. It may also help us think anew about such highly philosophical concerns as differences, otherness, the end s of history and the world at large.

Author: Bridget Grogan. The English-speaking world today is so diverse that readers need a gateway to its many postcolonial narratives and art forms. The histories and transformations postcolonial countries have gone through have given rise to a wide range of myths that retrace their birth, evolution, and decline.

Description

Crises, clashes, and conflicts, which are at the heart of the second section of this book, entail myths of historical and cultural dislocation. However, the crises that have deprived entire communities of their homeland and their identity are followed by moments of remembrance, reconciliation, and rebuilding. The editors of this collection hope that readers worldwide will enjoy reading about the myths that have shaped and continue to shape postcolonial communities and nations.

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